MINORITY GROUPS WITHIN THE CANADIAN GAY
COMMUNITY // LES MINORITÉS DANS LA
COMMUNAUTÉ GAIE ET LESBIENNE
Compiler note: Although reluctant to make the distinction suggested by the title of
this subsection, I feel that there are some items of particular importance and interest
to smaller groups within the glbt community, and that if these were included in a
broader subject section, they could well be overlooked.
Addressing Homophobia in relation to HIV/AIDS in Aboriginal Communities:
Final Report of the Environmental Scan 2004-05. Principal investigator,
Art Zoccole; co-principal investigator, Janice Ristock; co-investigator,
Kevin Barlow; research coordinator,
Aboriginal AIDS Network, [2005?].
Available also as electronic (pdf) document at:
NOTE: annotated bibliography, pp. 109-112, which includes
“Glad to Be Gay and Muslim: Gays and Lesbians in the Muslim Community
Are Quietly Shattering One of the Final Taboos of Islam.” Globe and
Mail [Metro ed.], May 17, 2003, p. F10.
Both Canadian and also more general discussion.
“A Touch Too Pink? Some Members of Canada’s Ismaili Community Are
Seeing Red over
the Gay-themed Film ‘Touch of Pink’.” Globe
& Mail [
Ian Iqbal Rashid’s film, listed in VIDEOS section of this list.
“Identité ethnique et identité érotique : le cas de lesbiennes d’origine
haïtienne.” M.Sc. thesis, Université de Montréal, 2005.
Contains English summary.
Ref. : AMICUS catalogue record no. 32304165.
“Gays and Lesbians of the First Nations.” In Rethinking Society in the 21st
and Kate Bezanson.
Behind the Asian Mask: A Survey of Asian MSMs and HIV Awareness.
Research writer, Asha Bhat; survey administrator, William Yee; project
coordinator, Henry Koo.
project with AIDS Vancouver, 1994.
(ca. 50 p.; ISBN 1895922046)
the GenerAsian Gap.”
and lesbian daughter form GenerAsians Together, a
gay Asian Canadian intergenerational support group.
“Ethnic and Lesbian: Understanding Identity through the Life-History
Approach.” Affilia 14(4) (1999): 417-438.
“The life-history approach…considered…most appropriate for
the experience of ethnic lesbians in
study is presented to highlight the usefulness of the…method. Paula
is a 33-year-old lesbian [of Greek background]” – NISC Gay & Lesbian
“Reclaiming Space-Regaining Health: The Health Care Experiences of Two-
Spirit People in
“The Practice of Marriage and Family Counseling and Native Religions.”
In The Role of Religion in Marriage and Family Counseling, pp. 153-164.
Edited by Jill D. Onedera.
Ref.: PsycINFO index, which indicates that the article is much broader
than scope of this bibliography, but that, among the traditional values and
beliefs of the Anishnabe people discussed, there is the matter of sexual
Calixte, Shana L.
“Things Which Aren’t To Be Given Names : Afro-Caribbean and Diasporic
Negotiations of Same Gender Desire and Sexual Relations.” Canadian Woman
Studies 24(2-3) (Winter/Spring 2005): 128-137.
Ref.: CBCA index.
“Two-spirited Aboriginal People: Continuing Cultural Appropriation by
Non-aboriginal Society.” Canadian Woman Studies 24(2-3)
(Winter/Spring 2005): 123-127.
Ref.: CBCA index.
“The Regulation of First Nations Sexuality.” Canadian Journal of Native Studies,
18(1) (1998): 1-18.
“A look at how Euro-Christian missionaries and the Indian Act condemned
same-sex relationships among First Nations” –abstract from First Nations
CelebrAsian: Shared Lives: An Oral History of Gay Asians. [
Gay Asians Toronto, c1996.
Presents biographies (approx. six to twelve pages each) of the
following people: Alexis Carrington, Wayson Choy, Raymond Fong,
Richard Fung, Englebert Gayagoy, Andre Goh, Peter Ho, Kirby Hsu,
Kai Lau, Edward Lee, Alan Li, Duc Nyugen, and Chung Tang. Also
Gay Asians Toronto (G.A.T.) chronology of events, 1979-1996, and
3-page list of selected articles from CelebrAsian newsletter,
volume 2 (Spring 1984) through volume 20 (Fall 1995).
“De la force, de la force, à force d’être ensemble Yakhdav, groupe juif lesbien,
bisexuel et gai de Montréal.” Montréal serai 9(5) (Spring 1996): 45-47.
Cho, Song, ed. Rice.
SEE LITERATURE: ANTHOLOGIES section.
Cole, Susan G.
“Another Four Questions: Nurturing a Jewish Lesbian Family.” In From Memory
to Transformation: Jewish Women’s Voices, pp. 208-220. Edited by Sarah
Silberstein Swartz & Margie Wolfe.
Crichlow, Wesley Eddison Aylesworth.
“Buller Men and
Batty Bwoys: Hidden Men in
See also following entry for published work of same title.
Crichlow, Wesley Eddison Aylesworth.
Buller Men and Batty Bwoys: Hidden Men in
(230 p.; ISBN 0802089429)
See preceding thesis entry.
We Are Part of a Tradition: A Guide on Two-Spirited People for First Nations
(ca. 58 p.)
Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 21146927, which notes
bibliographic references in the work, pp. 50-53.
“Sexualité et handicap.” Le Réadaptologue 4(4) (déc. 1990): 5-20.
Y compris handicapés qui sont homosexuel. Note dans
l’index Repère: À suivre [?].
“Redefining Difference: Disabled Lesbians Resist.” Resources for Feminist
Research 18(2) (June 1989): 17-21.
“More Than Just an Arts Festival: Communities, Resistance, and the Story of
Desh Pardesh.” Canadian Journal of Communication 31(1) (2006): 17-34.
Ref.: CBCA index, which notes: “Desh Pardesh was a Toronto-based
arts festival…[for] the voices of those who are most silenced inside
the South Asian community and society at large: gays, lesbians,
bisexuals and trans-gendered people….” Article presents story and impact
of the organization.
“Coming Out of Two Closets.” Canadian Woman Studies 13(4) (Summer 1993):
“First Person.” Canadian Woman Studies 10(2/3) (Summer/Fall 1989): 167-168.
Enriched title: “Native Peoples and Homosexuality.”
Homosexualité et differences culturelles: une crainte raisonnable: mémoire
présenté par la Fondation Émergence et Gai Écoute [à la] Commission de
consultation sur les pratiques d’accommodement reliées aux différences
culturelles. Laurent McCutcheon. Montréal: Fondation Émergence : Gai
(24 p.; PDF document over the Web)
Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 33955391, which gives no
electronic address. Descriptors broadly concern minorities, religious
freedom, and religion and state. One descriptor is Homosexuels issus des
minorités – Droits – Québec (Province).
“The Trouble with ‘Asians’.” In Negotiating Lesbian and Gay Subjects, pp.
123-130. Edited by Monica Dorenkamp and Richard Henke.
Fung is a Canadian filmmaker.
“Gay Native Finds Place in Culture.” Windspeaker 11(19) (Dec. 6/19, 1993): R1
“Notes on a Queer South Asian Planet.” Rungh 3(3) (1995): 9-10.
Reference to “Asians in foreign countries.” Relevance uncertain.
“Homosexuals Caught between Cultures: Gays from Minority Groups Struggle
with Homophobia of Their
Communities, Conference Told.” Gazette [
August 19, 2001, p. A4.
Videos section of this list. Film about young gay
Jacobs, Sue-Ellen; Thomas, Wesley; and Lang, Sabine, eds.
Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality.
(331 p.; ISBN 0252066456)
One library subject heading applied is “Gays-North America-Identity.”
Included for this reason, although American imprint.
Kapac, Jack Steven.
“Chinese Male Homosexuality: Sexual Identity Formation and Gay Organizational
Development in a Contemporary Chinese Population.” Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Toronto, 1992.
“Examines some cultural, historical and political elements in the
development of homosexual identities and communal formations among
contemporary Chinese men….[Draws] upon fieldwork conducted with
homosexual Chinese men in a North American setting” – abstract from
Canadian Research Index.
Kapac, Jack [Steven].
“Culture/Community/Race: Chinese Gay Men and the Politics of Identity.”
Anthropologica [Canada] 40(2) (1998): 169-181.
“Provides an ethnographic account of the development of gay identities
and correlative practices among a group of Chinese men in Toronto…
in the 1980s” – abstract from America: History and Life index. Full text
of article on line through CBCA Fulltext Reference electronic index, as of
Khan, Badruddin, pseud.
“Not-So-Gay Life in Karachi.” Society of Lesbian and Gay Anthropologists’
Newsletter 12(1) (1990): 10-19.
Cited in his Sex, Longing & Not Belonging, listed in the BIOGRAPHY
section. Khan a Toronto resident at time of publication of his
biography. Article included because author grew up in Pakistan and, in his
biography, writes about personal experiences there.
Revised edition in Murray, Stephen, and Roscoe, Will. Islamic
Homosexualities, pp. 275-296. New York: New York University Press,
Männer als Frauen, Frauen als Männer : Geschlechtsrollenwechsel bei den
Indianern Nordamerikas. Hamburg, Germany: Wayasbah, 1990.
(ca. 435 p.; ISBN 3925682228)
Doctoral thesis, Universität Hamburg, 1990.
Broader than scope of this bibliography.
“Les Berdaches, hier et aujourd’hui : essai d’interprétation anthropologique.”
Québec: Département d’anthropologie, Université Laval, 1984.
Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 11581440, which states that this is
an “essai proposé à Gerry McNulty dans le cadre du cours Ethnologie
“Struggling with Tradition: Making Room for Same-sex Weddings in a Liberal
Jewish Context.” Ethnologies 28(2) (2006): 133-156.
“Bisexualité: le dernier tabou.” Le Nouvel Observateur [Paris], no. 1630
(1 févr. 1996): 4-12.
Not seen. This may well be of minor interest, but it apparently treats,
among other subjects, the issue of sexual identity among the Inuit.
“Lesbians of Colour, Loving and Struggling: A Conversation between Three
Lesbians of Colour.” Fireweed, issue 16 (Spring 1983): 66-72.
Three Canadian women, East Indian and Black, discuss their
“The Chequered Staircase: Jewish Lesbians at Mid-Life.” In From Memory to
Transformation: Jewish Women’s Voices, pp. 136-145. Edited by Sarah
Silberstein Swartz & Margie Wolfe. Toronto: Second Story Press, 1998.
“Living as a Minority within a Minority [gay Asians]; Asian Parents Learn to
Accept Gay Offspring.” Toronto Star, June 21, 1999, pp. D5, D7.
“The Two-Spirit Papers : The Impact of Heterosexism and Homophobia on Inuit
and First Nations Peoples’ Lives.” M.Sw. research report, School of Social Work,
McGill University, 1998.
(ca. 65 leaves)
Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 24540976.
Meyer-Cook, Fiona, and Labelle, Diane.
“Namaji : Two-spirit Organizing
Lesbian Social Services : Issues in Practice, Policy & Research 16(1) (2004):
Ref.: PsycINFO index, which provides abstract and notes that the
“article traces the authors’ involvement in Two-Spirit organizing in
Note: there is a second PsycINFO record which indicates that a
similarly-titled article by these authors was published as:
Community Organizing against Homophobia and Heterosexism: The
World through Rainbow-colored Glasses, pp. 29-51. Edited by
“Minority Homosexuals Invisible to Their World: Gay Men and Women in Canada’s
Ethnic Communities Feel Surrounded by Homophobia, Marginalized by Gay
Culture.” Globe and Mail [Metro ed.], May 21, 1997, p. A1, A12.
Monette, LaVerne, and Albert, Darcy; in co-operation with Judith Waalen.
Voices of Two-Spirited Men: A Survey of Aboriginal Two-Spirited Men
across Canada. Toronto: 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations, 2001.
(85,  p.)
Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 26475290.
Bibliographical references: pp. 80-83.
Murray, Stephen O.
“Representations of Desires in Some Recent Gay Asian-American Writings.”
Journal of Homosexuality 45(1) (2003): 111-142.
Ref.: PsycINFO index, which provides abstract and notes that
“representations, which are not assumed to be autobiographical” are from
eight men, two of whom are mentioned in the abstract as “South Asian
“Raven’s Garden: A Discussion about Aboriginal Sexual Orientation and
Transgender Issues.” Canadian Journal of Law and Society 17(2)(Fall 2002):
“Native Tradition Is Tolerant toward Gays: Owendeka.” Windspeaker 5(30)
(Oct. 2, 1987): 3.
Noorani, Arif, and D’Souza, Kevin.
“Flesh as a Colour: Self-Porn and the Brown Gay Male Body.” Rungh 4(1/2)
“My Life Is Not Imagined: Notes on Writing as a Sansei Lesbian Feminist.”
Open Letter 8(4) (Summer 1992): 100-104.
Japanese-Canadian lesbian writer.
“Social Work with Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Members of Racial and Ethnic
Minority Groups.” In Professional Social Service Delivery in a Multicultural
World. Edited by Gwat-Yong Lie and Dave Este. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 1999.
“Running from the Family: Transcript of a Presentation Given by the Author
at a Panel Discussion.” Montreal serai 9(3) (1995): 7-9.
Gays; South Asian Canadians.
“Program Heralded for Helping Gay Asians: Bubble Tea Lounge Unites Queer Asian
Community.” Toronto Star, December 11, 2001, p. D3.
Rashid, Ian I.
“Naming Names, or How Do You Say Queer in South Asian?” Rungh 3(3)
Gays; South Asian Canadians.
Ratti, R.; Bakeman, R.; and Peterson, J. L.
“Correlates of High-Risk Sexual Behaviour among Canadian Men of South
Asian and European Origin Who Have Sex with Men.” AIDS Care 12(2)
(April 2000): 193-202.
“A sample of 98 Canadian homosexual and bisexual men, 46 of South
Asian and 52 of European origin…were asked about their high-risk
sexual behaviours…” – NISC Gay & Lesbian Abstracts.
Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America.
New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
(320 p.; ISBN 0312175396)
Included because library cataloguing records give geographical
extent as North America.
Roscoe, W., ed.
Living the Spirit: A Gay American Indian Anthology. New York: St. Martin’s,
Ref.: Brian O’Neill, Social Services to Homosexuals in Ontario, p. 33,
reports that “two contributions from Canadians confirm that
homosexuality is found among Canadian natives.”
“Same-Sex Changes Raise Concerns.” Windspeaker 18(2) (June 2000): 13
Enriched title: Naskapi Nation (Quebec) concerned over Bill C-23.
Schnoor, Randal F.
“Finding One’s Place: Ethnic Identity Construction among Gay Jewish Men.”
Ref.: AMICUS catalogue no. 34139049.
Schnoor, Randal F., and Weinfeld, Morton.
“Seeking a Mate: Inter-group Partnerships among Gay Jewish Men.”
Canadian Ethnic Studies 37(1) (2005): 21-39.
Sociological Abstracts, which notes: “The 2001
Census data reveal that Canadian gay & lesbian Jews are ‘out-marrying’
at a rate of approximately eighty-nine percent….We found that the
majority of the gay Jewish men interviewed expressed a desire for a
“Black History and Desire.” Fuse [Toronto] 13(5) (June/July 1990): 33-37.
Descriptor applied by indexer: homosexuals and homosexuality.
Shroff, F. M.
“The Social Construction of AIDS, Heterosexism, Racism and Misogyny, and the
Challenges Facing Women of Colour.” Resources for Feminist
Research 20 (3/4) (Winter 1991): 115-123.
Broader than scope of this bibliography, but includes discussion of
Simoneau, Alan G.
“Metaphorically Speaking: Ethnic Analogies and the Construction of Gay
Identity.” MA thesis, Carleton University, 1998.
“Gay identity formation is presented as a life-long process culminating
in the acceptance of a positive gay self-image and coherent personal
identity as a member of a clearly identifiable group….Interview data
collected from 15 ethnically and racially mixed gay men are used to
examine the ethnicization of gender” – abstract from Canadian Research
“Identités queer: diaspora et organisation ethnoculturelle et transnationale des
lesbiennes et des gais à Toronto.” Lien social et Politiques numéro 53
(printemps 2005) : 81-92.
Sortir ses couleurs: diversité sexuelle et ethnoculturelle: actes des colloques des 29 mai et
24 juillet 2004 et du 18 mars 2005 : organisé en partenariat avec Égale Canada et
Patrimoine canadien = Out in color. Montréal: Association canadienne pour la
santé mentale, Filiale de Montréal, [2006?].
(127 p.; ISBN 2921948249)
Ref. : AMICUS catalogue record no. 32248163, which notes that text is in
English and French and applies descriptors Minority gays,
Homophobia, and Race discrimination.
“You Stretch Me.” Border/Lines [York University] 32 (1994): 37-42.
Indexing descriptors: lesbians; racial discrimination; minorities.
Steffenson, Kenneth, 1959-
(45 p.; ISBN 092076410X)
Strathdee, S. A., et al.
“HIV-Associated Risk Factors among Young Canadian Aboriginal and
Non-Aboriginal Men Who Have Sex with Men.” International Journal of
STD & AIDS [
Thomas, Wesley, and Jacobs, Sue-Ellen.
“…and We Are Still Here”: From Berdache to Two-Spirit People.”
American Indian Culture and Research Journal 23(2) (1999): 91-107.
Thoms, J. Michael (James Michael), 1968-
Leading an Extraordinary Life : Wise Practices for an HIV Prevention Campaign
with Two-spirit Men.
Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 33368957.
Link to electronic document: http://www.2spirits.com/Extraodinarylives.pdf
Tremble, B.; Schneider, Margaret S.; and Appathurai, C.
“Growing Up Gay or Lesbian in a Multicultural Context.” Journal of
Homosexuality 17 (1989): 253-267.
“Two-Spirit,” by Mary C. Churchill. In Lesbian Histories and Cultures: An
Encyclopedia, pp. 779-780. Edited by Bonnie Zimmerman. New York:
Garland Publishing, 2000.
Native peoples; geographically broader, but encompassing Canada.
Two-spirit Youth Speak Out! : Analysis of the Needs Assessment Tool.
Report written by Gil Lerat.
Electronic document (pdf) in ca. 38 print
pages. URL (viewed
“Unity Urged.” Share [Toronto] 17(47) (March 16, 1995): 4, 7.
Enriched title: “Black Lesbians and Lesbophobia in the Black
Van der Meide, Wayne.
“The Intersection of Sexual Orientation & Race: Considering the Experiences
of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered (“GLBT”) People of Colour
& Two-Spirited People: A Research Paper.” Prepared for EGALE Canada.
Electronic document dated August 24, 2001 on t.p. of full report, as
accessed January 9, 2003 at the EGALE web site,
www.islandnet.com/~egale . Document posted in three parts – executive
summary, full report, and appendices.
Full report equivalent to ca. 22 printed pages and appendices to
ca. 8 printed pages. Appendix 2 is a three-page bibliography. Documents
posted in English, French, and Spanish.
Van der Meide, Wayne.
“The Intersections of Sexual Orientation, Race, Religion, Ethnicity & Heritage
Languages: The State of Research.”
Electronic document dated March 15, 2002 on t.p. and available, as of
January 9, 2003, at canada.metropolis.net web site. Follow the links to
“Intersections of Diversity” seminar, April 25-26, 2003, and then click on
title of paper or on the “summary” option.
“Prepared for: Canadian Heritage, Multiculturalism Program” –Title page.
Runs, in English, to 31 printed pages plus title page and table of contents.
Bibliography: pp. 27-31.
This literature review was commissioned in preparation for the
“Intersections of Diversity” seminar, April 25-26, 2003,
Niagara Falls, Ontario.
“A View on Gay Asians and AIDS.” Fuse [Toronto] 15(5) (Summer 1992): 13-15.
Williams, Walter L.
The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture. Boston:
Beacon Press, 1988, c1986.
(344 p.; ISBN 0807046116; 0807046027)
Canadian relevance not determined, but library subject analysis
“How We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two-Spirit People.”
Harvard Educational Review 66(2) (Summer 1996): 303-317.
“Reviews some current models of sexual identity and development
and examines identity development from a Canadian First Nations
(tribes) and Native American (Indigenous American) perspective….
Many lesbian, gay, and bisexual Indigenous Americans use the term
‘2-Spirit’ to describe themselves. This term is drawn from a traditional
worldview that affirms the inseparability of the experience of their
sexuality from the experience of their culture and community. The
author presents her personal story to reconstruct and strengthen the
understanding of identity” – from PsycINFO.
“N’tacimowin inna nah’ : Coming in to Two-spirit Identities.” Ed.D. dissertation,
(109 p.; ISBN 9780549111252)
were based in
and entailed individual and group discussions with eight participants who
identify as two-spirit…. Using Cree concepts…and guidance from other
Indigenous researchers, a unique Indigenous research methodology was
followed….” – from abstract, ProQuest Dissertations &
Theses, ProQuest document ID 1372018451; Publication no. AAT