Compiler note: Although reluctant to make the distinction suggested by the title of

this subsection, I feel that there are some items of particular importance and interest

 to smaller groups within the glbt community, and that if these were included in a

broader subject section, they could well be overlooked.


Addressing Homophobia in relation to HIV/AIDS in Aboriginal Communities:

                        Final Report of the Environmental Scan 2004-05.  Principal investigator,

                        Art Zoccole; co-principal investigator, Janice Ristock; co-investigator,

                        Kevin Barlow; research coordinator, Joyce Seto.  Ottawa, ON: Canadian

                        Aboriginal AIDS Network, [2005?].

                        (113 p.)

                                                Available also as electronic (pdf) document at:


                                                NOTE: annotated bibliography, pp. 109-112, which includes

                                                Canadian items.


Al-Solaylee, Kamal.

                        “Glad to Be Gay and Muslim: Gays and Lesbians in the Muslim Community

                        Are Quietly Shattering One of the Final Taboos of Islam.”  Globe and

                        Mail [Metro ed.], May 17, 2003, p. F10.

                                                Both Canadian and also more general discussion.


Al-Solaylee, Kamal.

               “A Touch Too Pink? Some Members of Canada’s Ismaili Community Are

Seeing Red over the Gay-themed Film ‘Touch of Pink’.”  Globe & Mail [Toronto],

July 24, 2004, p. R5  (977 words)

                                                Ian Iqbal Rashid’s film, listed in VIDEOS section of this list.


Ambrosi, Sophie.

                        “Identité ethnique et identité érotique : le cas de lesbiennes d’origine

                        haïtienne.”  M.Sc. thesis, Université de Montréal, 2005.

                        (152 f.)

                                                Contains English summary.

                                                Ref. : AMICUS catalogue record no. 32304165.


Beaver, Susan.

                        “Gays and Lesbians of the First Nations.”  In Rethinking Society in the 21st

                        Century: Critical Readings in Sociology, pp. 247-248.  Edited by Michelle

                        Webber and Kate Bezanson.  Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2004.


Bhat, Asha.

Behind the Asian Mask: A Survey of Asian MSMs and HIV Awareness.

               Research writer, Asha Bhat; survey administrator, William Yee; project

               coordinator, Henry Koo.  Vancouver: Asian Support – AIDS Project, a

               project with AIDS Vancouver, 1994.

               (ca. 50 p.; ISBN 1895922046)


“Bridging the GenerAsian Gap.” Toronto Star, July 3, 2001, p. B4.

                                     Mother and lesbian daughter form GenerAsians Together, a Toronto

                                    gay Asian Canadian intergenerational support group.


Brotman, Shari, and Kraniou, Stavroula.

“Ethnic and Lesbian: Understanding Identity through the Life-History

               Approach.”  Affilia 14(4) (1999): 417-438.

                             “The life-history approach…considered…most appropriate for

                             researching the experience of ethnic lesbians in Canada.  A case

                             study is presented to highlight the usefulness of the…method.  Paula

                             is a 33-year-old lesbian [of Greek background]” – NISC Gay & Lesbian



Brotman, Shari, et al.

            “Reclaiming Space-Regaining Health: The Health Care Experiences of Two-

            Spirit People in Canada.”  Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services

               14(1)(2002): 67-87.


Bruyere, Gord.

                        “The Practice of Marriage and Family Counseling and Native Religions.”

                        In The Role of Religion in Marriage and Family Counseling, pp. 153-164.

                        Edited by Jill D. Onedera.  New York: Routledge, 2008.

                                                Ref.: PsycINFO index, which indicates that the article is much broader

                                                than scope of this bibliography, but that, among the traditional values and

                                                beliefs of the Anishnabe people discussed, there is the matter of sexual



Calixte, Shana L.

                        “Things Which Aren’t To Be Given Names : Afro-Caribbean and Diasporic

                        Negotiations of Same Gender Desire and Sexual Relations.”  Canadian Woman

                        Studies 24(2-3) (Winter/Spring 2005): 128-137.

                                                Ref.: CBCA index.


Cameron, Michelle.

                        “Two-spirited Aboriginal People: Continuing Cultural Appropriation by

                        Non-aboriginal Society.”  Canadian Woman Studies 24(2-3)

                        (Winter/Spring 2005): 123-127.

                                                Ref.: CBCA index.


Cannon, Martin.

               “The Regulation of First Nations Sexuality.”  Canadian Journal of Native Studies,

               18(1) (1998): 1-18.

                             “A look at how Euro-Christian missionaries and the Indian Act condemned

                             same-sex relationships among First Nations” –abstract from First Nations

                             Periodical Index.


CelebrAsian: Shared Lives: An Oral History of Gay Asians.  [Toronto]:

Gay Asians Toronto, c1996.

(158 p.)      

                    Presents biographies (approx. six to twelve pages each) of the

                    following people:  Alexis Carrington, Wayson Choy, Raymond Fong,

                    Richard Fung, Englebert Gayagoy, Andre Goh, Peter Ho, Kirby Hsu,

                    Kai Lau, Edward Lee, Alan Li, Duc Nyugen, and Chung Tang.  Also

                    Gay Asians Toronto (G.A.T.) chronology of events, 1979-1996, and

                    3-page list of selected articles from CelebrAsian newsletter,

                             volume 2 (Spring 1984) through volume 20 (Fall 1995).


Chervin, Michael.

“De la force, de la force, à force d’être ensemble Yakhdav, groupe juif lesbien,

               bisexuel et gai de Montréal.”  Montréal serai 9(5) (Spring 1996): 45-47.


Cho, Song, ed.  Rice.

               SEE LITERATURE: ANTHOLOGIES section.


Cole, Susan G.

              “Another Four Questions: Nurturing a Jewish Lesbian Family.”  In From Memory

               to Transformation: Jewish Women’s Voices, pp. 208-220.  Edited by Sarah

               Silberstein Swartz & Margie Wolfe.  Toronto: Second Story Press, 1998.


Crichlow, Wesley Eddison Aylesworth.

              “Buller Men and Batty Bwoys: Hidden Men in Toronto and Halifax Black

               Communities.”  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, 1998.

               (273 p.)

                             See also following entry for published work of same title.


Crichlow, Wesley Eddison Aylesworth.

                Buller Men and Batty Bwoys: Hidden Men in Toronto and Halifax Black

               Communities.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, c2004.

               (230 p.; ISBN 0802089429)

                             See preceding thesis entry.                          



Deschamps, Gilbert.

              We Are Part of a Tradition: A Guide on Two-Spirited People for First Nations

            Communities.  Toronto, Ont.: 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations, c1998.

            (ca. 58 p.)

                                    Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 21146927, which notes

                             bibliographic references in the work, pp. 50-53.


Desjardins, Jean.

“Sexualité et handicap.”  Le Réadaptologue 4(4) (déc. 1990): 5-20.

                             Y compris handicapés qui sont homosexuel.  Note dans

                             l’index Repère: À suivre [?].


Doucette, Joanne.

“Redefining Difference: Disabled Lesbians Resist.”  Resources for Feminist

               Research 18(2) (June 1989): 17-21.


Fernandez, Sharon.

                        “More Than Just an Arts Festival: Communities, Resistance, and the Story of

                        Desh Pardesh.”  Canadian Journal of Communication 31(1) (2006): 17-34.

                                                Ref.: CBCA index, which notes: “Desh Pardesh was a Toronto-based

                                                arts festival…[for] the voices of those who are most silenced inside

                                                the South Asian community and society at large: gays, lesbians,

                                                bisexuals and trans-gendered people….”  Article presents story and impact

of the organization.


Field, Jane.

“Coming Out of Two Closets.”  Canadian Woman Studies 13(4) (Summer 1993):


                             Handicapped lesbians.


“First Person.”  Canadian Woman Studies 10(2/3) (Summer/Fall 1989): 167-168.

                             Enriched title: “Native Peoples and Homosexuality.”


Fondation Émergence.

                        Homosexualité et differences culturelles: une crainte raisonnable: mémoire

                        présenté par la Fondation Émergence et Gai Écoute [à la] Commission de

                        consultation sur les pratiques d’accommodement reliées aux différences

                        culturelles.  Laurent McCutcheon.  Montréal: Fondation Émergence : Gai

                        Écoute, [2007].

                        (24 p.; PDF document over the Web)

                                                Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 33955391, which gives no

                                                electronic address.  Descriptors broadly concern minorities, religious

                                                freedom, and religion and state. One descriptor is Homosexuels issus des

                                                minorités – Droits – Québec (Province).


Fung, Richard.

            “The Trouble with ‘Asians’.”  In Negotiating Lesbian and Gay Subjects, pp.

            123-130.  Edited by Monica Dorenkamp and Richard Henke.

            New York and London: Routledge, 1995.

                             Fung is a Canadian filmmaker.


“Gay Native Finds Place in Culture.”  Windspeaker 11(19) (Dec. 6/19, 1993): R1

               (504 words).


Gopinath, Gayatrai.

“Notes on a Queer South Asian Planet.”  Rungh 3(3) (1995): 9-10.

                             Reference to “Asians in foreign countries.”  Relevance uncertain.


“Homosexuals Caught between Cultures: Gays from Minority Groups Struggle

            with Homophobia of Their Communities, Conference Told.”  Gazette [Montreal],

            August 19, 2001, p. A4.

                                    Concerns Montreal.



            SEE Videos section of this list. Film about young gay Hong Kong immigrant.


Jacobs, Sue-Ellen; Thomas, Wesley; and Lang, Sabine, eds.

Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality.

               Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, c1997.

               (331 p.; ISBN 0252066456)

                             One library subject heading applied is “Gays-North America-Identity.”

                             Included for this reason, although American imprint.


Kapac, Jack Steven.

“Chinese Male Homosexuality: Sexual Identity Formation and Gay Organizational

               Development in a Contemporary Chinese Population.”  Ph.D. dissertation,

               University of Toronto, 1992.

               (507 p.)

                             “Examines some cultural, historical and political elements in the

                             development of homosexual identities and communal formations among

                             contemporary Chinese men….[Draws] upon fieldwork conducted with

                             homosexual Chinese men in a North American setting” – abstract from

                             Canadian Research Index.


Kapac, Jack [Steven].

“Culture/Community/Race: Chinese Gay Men and the Politics of Identity.”

               Anthropologica [Canada] 40(2) (1998): 169-181.

                             “Provides an ethnographic account of the development of gay identities

                             and correlative practices among a group of Chinese men in Toronto…

                             in the 1980s” – abstract from America: History and Life index. Full text

                             of article on line through CBCA Fulltext Reference electronic index, as of

                             late 2000.


Khan, Badruddin, pseud.

“Not-So-Gay Life in Karachi.”  Society of Lesbian and Gay Anthropologists’

               Newsletter 12(1) (1990): 10-19.

                             Cited in his Sex, Longing & Not Belonging, listed in the BIOGRAPHY

                             section.  Khan a Toronto resident at time of publication of his

biography.  Article included because author grew up in Pakistan and, in his

biography, writes about personal experiences there.

Revised edition in Murray, Stephen, and Roscoe, Will.  Islamic

Homosexualities, pp. 275-296.  New York: New York University Press,



Lang, Sabine.

            Männer als Frauen, Frauen als Männer : Geschlechtsrollenwechsel bei den

            Indianern Nordamerikas.  Hamburg, Germany: Wayasbah, 1990.

            (ca. 435 p.; ISBN 3925682228)

                                    Doctoral thesis, Universität Hamburg, 1990.

                                    Broader than scope of this bibliography.


Lanouette, Claude.

            “Les Berdaches, hier et aujourd’hui : essai d’interprétation anthropologique.”

            Québec: Département d’anthropologie, Université Laval, 1984.

                                    Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 11581440, which states that this is

                                    an “essai proposé à Gerry McNulty dans le cadre du cours Ethnologie

                             des Amérindiens.”


Lash, Shari.

                        “Struggling with Tradition: Making Room for Same-sex Weddings in a Liberal

                        Jewish Context.”  Ethnologies 28(2) (2006): 133-156.

                                                Ref.: America: History & Life index entry notes that historical period

                                                is 1960’s-2005.


Leibowitz, Nicole.

“Bisexualité: le dernier tabou.”  Le Nouvel Observateur [Paris], no. 1630

               (1 févr. 1996): 4-12.

Not seen.  This may well be of minor interest, but it apparently treats,

among other subjects, the issue of sexual identity among the Inuit.


“Lesbians of Colour, Loving and Struggling: A Conversation between Three

            Lesbians of Colour.”  Fireweed, issue 16 (Spring 1983): 66-72.

                                    Three Canadian women, East Indian and Black, discuss their



Lipstadt, Helena.

            “The Chequered Staircase: Jewish Lesbians at Mid-Life.”  In From Memory to

            Transformation: Jewish Women’s Voices, pp. 136-145.  Edited by Sarah

            Silberstein Swartz & Margie Wolfe.  Toronto: Second Story Press, 1998.


“Living as a Minority within a Minority [gay Asians]; Asian Parents Learn to

              Accept Gay Offspring.”  Toronto Star, June 21, 1999, pp. D5, D7.


Meyer, Fiona.

            “The Two-Spirit Papers : The Impact of Heterosexism and Homophobia on Inuit

and First Nations Peoples’ Lives.”  M.Sw. research report, School of Social Work,

McGill University, 1998.

            (ca. 65 leaves)

                                    Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 24540976.


Meyer-Cook, Fiona, and Labelle, Diane.

                        “Namaji : Two-spirit Organizing in Montreal, Canada.”  Journal of Gay &

                        Lesbian Social Services : Issues in Practice, Policy & Research 16(1) (2004):


                                                Ref.: PsycINFO index, which provides abstract and notes that the

                                                “article traces the authors’ involvement in Two-Spirit organizing in

                                                Montreal since 1995….”

                                                Note: there is a second PsycINFO record which indicates that a

                                                similarly-titled article by these authors was published as:

                                                Community Organizing against Homophobia and Heterosexism: The

                                                World through Rainbow-colored Glasses, pp. 29-51.  Edited by 

                                                Samantha Wehbi.  Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press/The Haworth

                                                Press, 2004.


“Minority Homosexuals Invisible to Their World: Gay Men and Women in Canada’s

            Ethnic Communities Feel Surrounded by Homophobia, Marginalized by Gay

            Culture.”  Globe and Mail [Metro ed.], May 21, 1997, p. A1, A12.


Monette, LaVerne, and Albert, Darcy; in co-operation with Judith Waalen.

            Voices of Two-Spirited Men: A Survey of Aboriginal Two-Spirited Men

            across Canada.  Toronto: 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations, 2001.

            (85, [13] p.)

                                    Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 26475290.

                                    Bibliographical references: pp. 80-83.


Murray, Stephen O.

                        “Representations of Desires in Some Recent Gay Asian-American Writings.”

                        Journal of Homosexuality 45(1) (2003): 111-142.

                                                Ref.: PsycINFO index, which provides abstract and notes that

“representations, which are not assumed to be autobiographical” are from

eight men, two of whom are mentioned in the abstract as “South Asian

émigrés to Canada (Badruddin Khan and Shyam Selvadurai)….”


Napoleon, Val.

                        “Raven’s Garden: A Discussion about Aboriginal Sexual Orientation and

                        Transgender Issues.”  Canadian Journal of Law and Society 17(2)(Fall 2002):



“Native Tradition Is Tolerant toward Gays: Owendeka.”  Windspeaker 5(30)

            (Oct. 2, 1987): 3.


Noorani, Arif, and D’Souza, Kevin.

            “Flesh as a Colour: Self-Porn and the Brown Gay Male Body.”  Rungh 4(1/2)

            (1998): 36-39.


Oikawa, Mona.

            “My Life Is Not Imagined: Notes on Writing as a Sansei Lesbian Feminist.”

            Open Letter 8(4) (Summer 1992): 100-104.

                                    Japanese-Canadian lesbian writer.


O’Neill, Brian.

“Social Work with Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Members of Racial and Ethnic

 Minority Groups.”  In Professional Social Service Delivery in a Multicultural

World. Edited by Gwat-Yong Lie and Dave Este.  Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 1999.


Oza, Kalpesh.

            “Running from the Family: Transcript of a Presentation Given by the Author

            at a Panel Discussion.”  Montreal serai 9(3) (1995): 7-9.

                                    Gays; South Asian Canadians.


“Program Heralded for Helping Gay Asians: Bubble Tea Lounge Unites Queer Asian

            Community.”  Toronto Star, December 11, 2001, p. D3.


Rashid, Ian I.

            “Naming Names, or How Do You Say Queer in South Asian?”  Rungh 3(3)

            (1995): 7.

                                    Gays; South Asian Canadians.


Ratti, R.; Bakeman, R.; and Peterson, J. L.

            “Correlates of High-Risk Sexual Behaviour among Canadian Men of South

            Asian and European Origin Who Have Sex with Men.”  AIDS Care 12(2)

            (April 2000): 193-202.

                                    “A sample of 98 Canadian homosexual and bisexual men, 46 of South

                                    Asian and 52 of European origin…were asked about their high-risk

                                    sexual behaviours…” – NISC Gay & Lesbian Abstracts.


Roscoe, Will.

            Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America.

            New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

            (320 p.; ISBN 0312175396)

                                    Included because library cataloguing records give geographical

                                    extent as North America.


Roscoe, W., ed.

            Living the Spirit: A Gay American Indian Anthology.  New York: St. Martin’s,


                                    Ref.: Brian O’Neill, Social Services to Homosexuals in Ontario, p. 33,

                                    reports that “two contributions from Canadians confirm that

                                    homosexuality is found among Canadian natives.”


Roslin, Alex.

            “Same-Sex Changes Raise Concerns.”  Windspeaker 18(2) (June 2000): 13

            (399 words).

                                    Enriched title: Naskapi Nation (Quebec) concerned over Bill C-23.


Schnoor, Randal F.

                        “Finding One’s Place: Ethnic Identity Construction among Gay Jewish Men.”

                        Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, c2003.

                        (248 p.)

                                                Ref.: AMICUS catalogue no. 34139049.


Schnoor, Randal F., and Weinfeld, Morton.

                        “Seeking a Mate: Inter-group Partnerships among Gay Jewish Men.”

                        Canadian Ethnic Studies 37(1) (2005): 21-39.

                                                Ref.: CSA Sociological Abstracts, which notes: “The 2001 Canada

                                                Census data reveal that Canadian gay & lesbian Jews are ‘out-marrying’

                                                at a rate of approximately eighty-nine percent….We found that the

                                                majority of the gay Jewish men interviewed expressed a desire for a

                                                Jewish partner….”


Shinhat, Molly.

            “Black History and Desire.”  Fuse [Toronto] 13(5) (June/July 1990): 33-37.

                                     Descriptor applied by indexer: homosexuals and homosexuality.


Shroff, F. M.

            “The Social Construction of AIDS, Heterosexism, Racism and Misogyny, and the

            Challenges Facing Women of Colour.”  Resources for Feminist

            Research 20 (3/4) (Winter 1991): 115-123.

                                    Broader than scope of this bibliography, but includes discussion of



Simoneau, Alan G.

            “Metaphorically Speaking: Ethnic Analogies and the Construction of Gay

            Identity.”  MA thesis, Carleton University, 1998.

            (147 p.)

                                    “Gay identity formation is presented as a life-long process culminating

                                    in the acceptance of a positive gay self-image and coherent personal

                                    identity as a member of a clearly identifiable group….Interview data

                                    collected from 15 ethnically and racially mixed gay men are used to

                                    examine the ethnicization of gender” – abstract from Canadian Research



Smith, Miriam.

                        “Identités queer: diaspora et organisation ethnoculturelle et transnationale des

                        lesbiennes et des gais à Toronto.”  Lien social et Politiques numéro 53

(printemps 2005) : 81-92.


Sortir ses couleurs: diversité sexuelle et ethnoculturelle: actes des colloques des 29 mai et

                        24 juillet 2004 et du 18 mars 2005 : organisé en partenariat avec Égale Canada et

                        Patrimoine canadien = Out in color.  Montréal: Association canadienne pour la

                        santé mentale, Filiale de Montréal, [2006?].

                        (127 p.; ISBN 2921948249)

                                                Ref. : AMICUS catalogue record no. 32248163, which notes that text is in

                                                English and French and applies descriptors Minority gays,

                                                Homophobia, and Race discrimination.


Srivastava, Vinita.

            “You Stretch Me.”  Border/Lines [York University] 32 (1994): 37-42.

                                    Indexing descriptors: lesbians; racial discrimination; minorities.


Steffenson, Kenneth, 1959-

            Manitoba Native Peoples and Homosexuality: Historical and Contemporary

            Aspects.  Winnipeg: Council on Homosexuality and Religion, c1987.

            (45 p.; ISBN 092076410X)


Strathdee, S. A., et al.

            “HIV-Associated Risk Factors among Young Canadian Aboriginal and

            Non-Aboriginal Men Who Have Sex with Men.”  International Journal of

            STD & AIDS [England] 10(9) (Sept. 1999): 582-587.


Thomas, Wesley, and Jacobs, Sue-Ellen.

            “…and We Are Still Here”: From Berdache to Two-Spirit People.”

            American Indian Culture and Research Journal 23(2) (1999): 91-107.

                                    Geographically both U.S. and Canada.


Thoms, J. Michael (James Michael), 1968-

                        Leading an Extraordinary Life : Wise Practices for an HIV Prevention Campaign

                        with Two-spirit Men.  Toronto, ON: 2-Spirited People of the 1st Nations, 2007.

                        (64 p.)

                                                Ref.: AMICUS catalogue record no. 33368957.

Link to electronic document:

(viewed September 30, 2008)



Tremble, B.; Schneider, Margaret S.; and Appathurai, C.

            “Growing Up Gay or Lesbian in a Multicultural Context.”  Journal of

            Homosexuality 17 (1989): 253-267.


“Two-Spirit,” by Mary C. Churchill.  In Lesbian Histories and Cultures: An

            Encyclopedia, pp. 779-780.  Edited by Bonnie Zimmerman.  New York:

            Garland Publishing, 2000.

                                    Native peoples; geographically broader, but encompassing Canada.


Two-spirit Youth Speak Out! : Analysis of the Needs Assessment Tool.

                        Report written by Gil Lerat.  Vancouver, BC : Urban Native Youth Association,

                        March 2004.

                        Electronic document (pdf) in ca. 38 print pages. URL (viewed Oct. 24, 2008) is: 


“Unity Urged.”  Share [Toronto] 17(47) (March 16, 1995): 4, 7.

Enriched title: “Black Lesbians and Lesbophobia in the Black



Van der Meide, Wayne.

            “The Intersection of Sexual Orientation & Race: Considering the Experiences

            of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered (“GLBT”) People of Colour

            & Two-Spirited People: A Research Paper.” Prepared for EGALE Canada.

Electronic document dated August 24, 2001 on t.p. of full report, as

accessed January 9, 2003 at the EGALE web site, . Document posted in three parts – executive

summary, full report, and appendices.

                             Full report equivalent to ca. 22 printed pages and appendices to

ca. 8 printed pages. Appendix 2 is a three-page bibliography.  Documents

posted in English, French, and Spanish.


Van der Meide, Wayne.

            “The Intersections of Sexual Orientation, Race, Religion, Ethnicity & Heritage

            Languages: The State of Research.”

Electronic document dated March 15, 2002 on t.p. and available, as of

January 9, 2003, at web site.  Follow the links to

“Intersections of Diversity” seminar, April 25-26, 2003, and then click on

title of paper or on the “summary” option.

“Prepared for: Canadian Heritage, Multiculturalism Program” –Title page.

Runs, in English, to 31 printed pages plus title page and table of contents.

Bibliography: pp. 27-31.

                                    This literature review was commissioned in preparation for the

                                    “Intersections of Diversity” seminar, April 25-26, 2003,

                                    Niagara Falls, Ontario.


“A View on Gay Asians and AIDS.”  Fuse [Toronto] 15(5) (Summer 1992): 13-15.


Williams, Walter L.

            The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture.  Boston:

            Beacon Press, 1988, c1986.

            (344 p.; ISBN 0807046116; 0807046027)

                                    Canadian relevance not determined, but library subject analysis

                                    applies “North America” as geographic descriptor.


Wilson, Alex.

            “How We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two-Spirit People.”

            Harvard Educational Review 66(2) (Summer 1996): 303-317.

                                    “Reviews some current models of sexual identity and development

                                    and examines identity development from a Canadian First Nations

                                    (tribes) and Native American (Indigenous American) perspective….

                                    Many lesbian, gay, and bisexual Indigenous Americans use the term

                                    ‘2-Spirit’ to describe themselves.  This term is drawn from a traditional

                                    worldview that affirms the inseparability of the experience of their

                                    sexuality from the experience of their culture and community.  The

                                    author presents her personal story to reconstruct and strengthen the

                                    understanding of identity” – from PsycINFO.


Wilson, Alexandria M.

                        “N’tacimowin inna nah’ : Coming in to Two-spirit Identities.”  Ed.D. dissertation,

                        Harvard University (USA), 2007.

                        (109 p.; ISBN 9780549111252)

                                                “Research activities were based in Winnipeg and in Northern Manitoba

                                                and entailed individual and group discussions with eight participants who

                                                identify as two-spirit…. Using Cree concepts…and guidance from other

Indigenous researchers, a unique Indigenous research methodology was

followed….” – from abstract, ProQuest Dissertations &

                                                Theses, ProQuest document ID 1372018451; Publication no. AAT